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Ironically, the 16th Amendment (income tax),  17th Amendment (direct election of Senators), 18th Amendment (Prohibition) and 19th were all mutual goals of the Temperence & Suffrage Movements.
The Income (or direct) Tax replaced lost revenue from liquor & excise taxes (which had been one of the Federal government’s largest sources of revenue). Women’s suffrage led to a much higher proportion of the vote going “dry.”
Directly elected Senators were now inclined to be more responsive to the “will of the people,” as opposed to a more “conservative” and insulated appointed political class which had previously occupied the chamber.
Together, the two movements represented the most powerful and effective lobbies in American political history, claiming responsibility for FOUR Amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
For a great read of the political pressures applied, read up on Wayne Wheeler, the attorney and activist who basically invented “modern” lobby pressure politics…or, even better, the fantastic Prohibition history Last Call by Daniel Okrent.
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